Friday, December 7, 2012

中语 Many Languages of China

Chinese Language Map

Did you know that China has fifty six recognized ethnic groups? In order of population, this is the list of the 56 ethnic groups in China that are officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China. Members of several ethnic groups reside in Hong Kong and Macau, but due to the long separation from China, many of these ethnic groups are generally unknown to the Special Administrative Regions (of People's Republic of China) of Hong Kong and of Macau.


Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication containing statistics for 6,909 languages in the 16th edition, released in 2009. It gives the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in the language, and so forth. According to Ethnologue, China has 292 living languages and 1 extinct language (Jurchen).

漢語英语the Chinese language(s)),又称中文(單指文字)、汉文华文,其他名稱有唐文中國語唐話中國話[1],是属汉藏语系分析语,具有声调。汉语的文字系统——汉字是一种意音文字,表意的同時也具一定的表音功能。漢語包含書面語以及口語兩部分,古代書面汉语称为文言文,现代书面汉语一般指使用現代標準漢語語法,詞彙的中文通行文体。目前全球有五分一人口使用漢語作為母語。現代漢語書面語高度統一,口語則有官話粵語吳語湘語贛語客家語閩語等七種主要漢語言。

The languages of China are collectively known as Zhongyu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: 中語; pinyin: Zhōngyǔ), and their study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China. So far I know of only one person who has embrked on that distinct academic discipline, and that is Mike Campbell, aka Glossika.

Zhongyu span eight primary language families, are diverse morphologically and phonetically, and may be mutually unintelligible with each other. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang.

I have been learning standard Chinese (known in China as Putonghua). It is the official national spoken language for the mainland. Several other autonomous regions have additional official languages. Language laws of China do not apply to either Hong Kong or Macauand hence have different official languages (Cantonese) than the mainland. 


English NameStandard RomanizationCodeAPinyinSimplified ChineseTraditional ChinesePopulationB
HanHanHAHàn Zú汉族漢族1,225,932,641 (2000)
ZhuangZhuangZHZhuàng Zú壮族壯族16,178,811
ManchuManMAMǎn Zú满族滿族10,682,263
Hui1HuiHUHuí Zú回族回族9,816,802
Miao2MiaoMHMiáo Zú苗族苗族8,940,116
UyghurUyghurUGWéiwú'ěr Zú维吾尔族維吾爾族8,399,393
TujiaTujiaTJTǔjiā Zú土家族土家族8,028,133
YiYiYIYí Zú彝族彝族7,762,286
MongolMongolMGMěnggǔ Zú蒙古族蒙古族5,813,947
Tibetan3ZangZAZàng Zú藏族藏族5,416,021
BuyeiBuyeiBYBùyī Zú布依族布依族2,971,460
DongDongDODòng Zú侗族侗族2,960,293
YaoYaoYAYáo Zú瑶族瑤族2,637,421
KoreanChaoxianCSCháoxiān Zú朝鲜族朝鮮族1,923,842
BaiBaiBABái Zú白族白族1,858,063
HaniHaniHNHāní Zú哈尼族哈尼族1,439,673
KazakhKazakKZHāsàkè Zú哈萨克族哈薩克族1,420,458
LiLiLILí Zú黎族黎族1,247,814
Dai4DaiDADǎi Zú傣族傣族1,158,989
SheSheSHShē Zú畲族畲族709,592
LisuLisuLSLìsù Zú傈僳族傈僳族634,912
GelaoGelaoGLGēlǎo Zú仡佬族仡佬族579,357
DongxiangDongxiangDXDōngxiāng Zú东乡族東鄉族513,805
Gaoshan5GaoshanGSGāoshān Zú高山族高山族458,000
LahuLahuLHLāhù Zú拉祜族拉祜族453,705
SuiSuiSUShuǐ Zú水族水族406,902
VaVaVAWǎ Zú佤族佤族396,610
Nakhi6NaxiNXNàxī Zú纳西族納西族308,839
QiangQiangQIQiāng Zú羌族羌族306,072
TuTuTUTǔ Zú土族土族241,198
MulaoMulaoMLMùlǎo Zú仫佬族仫佬族207,352
XibeXibeXBXībó Zú锡伯族錫伯族188,824
KyrgyzKirgizKGKē'ěrkèzī Zú柯尔克孜族柯爾克孜族160,823
DaurDaurDUDáwò'ěr Zú达斡尔族達斡爾族132,394
Jingpo7JingpoJPJǐngpō Zú景颇族景頗族132,143
MaonanMaonanMNMáonán Zú毛南族毛南族107,166
SalarSalarSLSālā Zú撒拉族撒拉族104,503
BlangBlangBLBùlǎng Zú布朗族布朗族91,882
TajikTajikTATǎjíkè Zú塔吉克族塔吉克族41,028
AchangAchangACĀchāng Zú阿昌族阿昌族33,936
PumiPumiPMPǔmǐ Zú普米族普米族33,600
EwenkiEwenkiEWÈwēnkè Zú鄂温克族鄂温克族30,505
NuNuNUNù Zú怒族怒族28,759
Gin8GinGIJīng Zú京族京族22,517
JinoJinoJNJīnuò Zú基诺族基諾族20,899
De'angDeangDEDé'áng Zú德昂族德昂族17,935
BonanBonanBOBǎo'ān Zú保安族保安族16,505
RussianRussRSÉluósī Zú俄罗斯族俄羅斯族15,609
YugurYugurYGYùgù Zú裕固族裕固族13,719
UzbekUzbekUZWūzībiékè Zú乌孜别克族烏孜别克族12,370
MonbaMonbaMBMénbā Zú门巴族門巴族8,923
OroqenOroqenORÈlúnchūn Zú鄂伦春族鄂倫春族8,196
DerungDerungDRDúlóng Zú独龙族獨龍族7,426
Chinese TatarsTatarTTTǎtǎ'ěr Zú塔塔尔族塔塔爾族4,890
Hezhen9HezhenHZHèzhé Zú赫哲族赫哲族4,640
LhobaLhobaLBLuòbā Zú珞巴族珞巴族2,965
UndistinguishedUndistinguishednoneWèi Shìbié Mínzú未识别民族未識別民族734,438

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